[Laughs.] Then, in the spiritual sense, that house is also the first mark of identity. Irony’s a defense followed by an attack, and Conde’s naturally ironic. That’s nonsense. Unlike the historian, or the social researcher, a novelist may work with a historical character, if he possesses the master keys to the story, to the character himself. It is there, in the yard of that house, that I’ve buried nearly all of my dogs. After establishing an intimate friendship, the strange man will tell him a story whose protagonists will be none other than the Soviet revolutionary politician and theorist Leon Trotsky and his assassin Ramón Mercader. I shall die,
My soul will be lost,
My descendants will be lost,
But the house of my father
Standing. Rushing through some, lingering on others. Because, first, I moved from my house northward toward the secondary schools where I studied, which were a little more distant from the house; then, during the high school years, toward the area of La Víbora; and then, even further south, toward The School of Letters and my work in the area of Vedado, what is now Old Havana. DECEMBER 28, 2018
“I MAY NOT BE the best Cuban writer of my generation, but I am the hardest-working,” Leonardo Padura likes to say. If there’s something I’d never be in life, it is a politician. You’ve condemned your character, Mario Conde, from your celebrated detective series, the “Havana Quartet,” to a life of nostalgia for Havana. What does the town of Mantilla mean to you, personally, and what does it mean, in terms of your work? I spent from 17 to 18 years of my life investing most of the time I had on playing ball. are easier to define, in particular if I’m working with historical characters. Other times, I only find out where the story’s going along the way. I have stayed true to what we achieved in the ’80s and what I consider to be a gain for Cuban literature. It consisted of a series of documents from the Moscow archives on the role of Soviet advisors in Spain. In the end, I did what fans of Padura’s work, and perhaps many of his closest friends have been doing for decades: I shouted, “Padura!” and brought him to a halt. Conde’s the reflective type, and that’s one of the characteristics of these novels: the action is minimal, the reflection is maximum. I write in the morning, and mainly in Cuba, although I’ve had to learn to write outside of Cuba, too — I’ve had no choice. With Trotsky, I think I achieved both, too. And from which point I begin to appropriate the city, an appropriation that was, geographically, moving from the south, where Mantilla is located, toward the north of the city. “I know why.” “Oh, good, he says. What has been the role of self-censorship in your work throughout the years? I’ve never had problems traveling abroad, and I’ve traveled quite a bit. What does he want? Research for the Trotsky novel was challenging because new information appeared constantly. and Where? Without Spanish publishers, institutions, production houses, and Spanish foundations, my work would not have enjoyed the scope, the proportions, the possibilities that it has enjoyed. Regardless of geographical location, as long as they continue to feel Cuban, they’re Cuban. So, I read a lot about Trotsky and about Trotsky’s time, and I also read many of Trotsky’s texts, in an effort to locate the intersection between historical information and a possible space of dramatic development. In Spain, I feel at my second home. A lecturer in UCLA’s Writing Programs, she is finishing a book titled Moorish Cuba: The Arab & Islamic Presence in Cuban Literature & Culture from the 1830s to the Present. I’ll discover that after I finish writing chapter five and start writing chapter six. Ultimately, the fact that I’ve been able to leave and return to Cuba, to belong, has been fundamental for me. When do you work? However, I am unable to express my personal perception in that same way in literature. So, it’s a process that involves early sketches that I revise in later versions. Do you right at night or during the day? He settles into his chair and gestures for me to begin. Given Decree 349, what does it mean to be an artist in Cuba today? He has lost dreams and opportunities — he needs hope; we see this play out, synthesized in many of his scenes, but especially in his reflections. To those who live and write in Cuba or to those who live and write abroad? I write with a purpose in mind, with one purpose in mind: the “Why do I write a novel?” This question is, in fact, the topic of an essay I’ll read in November for my induction into the Cuban Academy of Language. I, too, had to have an exit permit, and still today we need a valid passport to travel. My first home is Cuba. In Spain, I have friends, and a network of very important work relationships. I don’t know and almost don’t want to know. There are other characters of the whodunit type with whom he shares some characteristics. However, there must also exist codes of behavior that societies, in some way, put in practice. A small, but significant universe surrounds that house, moves through that house, where a sense of belonging reveals itself to me in a very powerful and tangible way. I am not a political man and I am not interested in making my work available to politicians. That is to say, that to Spain I owe my numerous awards, and a great deal of my career. Because I believe that even those at work on a new draft of our constitution aren’t clear about where they want to go, where they can go. As for political issues, gender issues included, some critics suggest that my books promote a macho masculinity, and that may be true. On July 10, 2018, the Decree 349/2018 was issued; a decree that addresses “[v]iolations by individuals of the regulations regarding the provision of artistic services.” The new law restricts the artistic activities that emanate from a growing independent cultural sector on the island, criminalizing the public presentation and commercialization of art, music, staging, and publications that act independently; that is, without prior authorization from the Ministry of Culture. If the practice is repressive, well, that’s one thing; if it’s much more tolerable and comprehensive, then it may be more acceptable. But my home is still in Cuba — I am a Cuban writer and I can’t be anything else. Strange, isn’t it? These copious publications constantly forced me to see things through a different lens, on the one hand; on the other, the relative absence of information about Ramón Mercader was daunting. With José María Heredia, I achieved both deep understanding and a necessary distance. I pay close attention to other conditions outside of my own, or other reflections that may have to do with a very diverse social nature, from topics related to ethnic groups to sexual preferences to religious beliefs; and, maybe, for a moment, I can think that someone who holds a certain belief, for example, is reckless for believing this or that. Beyond that, I’d be engaging in political literature and I am not interested in writing openly political literature. And, the fact that I enjoy visibility and that I’m promoted in another country — in ways that sometimes even reached my own country, where at times I have been invisible — has been fundamental to my work, to my career, and to what has been possible for me as a writer. That question has no answer. And, in that reflection, Conde expresses all the romanticism of an era, the disenchantment that we experience in another, and the restlessness that we now experience, in a country that ignores what the future holds or how it will get there. An award-winning, internationally known writer, Padura has published over 10 novels, available in at least 10 different languages, and travels the world visiting bookstores and universities, accepting honors and literary prizes, and granting over 300 interviews a year. Seldom are people aware that those books — written by Cuban writers living in Cuba — exist in their own country. And a writer respects his limits, or at least I, as a writer, watch my limits, due to more than political concerns. My induction comes only after belonging to three other academies, in Costa Rica, Panama, and Peru. It has to do with a house that is physical, real, in which — with certain transformations of course — I continue to live and my mother continues to live, and where I have lived all of my married years to Lucía. While presently it’s easier for all citizens to obtain a passport, not all citizens are able to complete the process. From the outset, I knew that Trotsky would be killed. But, had he not killed Trotsky, Mercader would have gone completely unnoticed by history. His presence in the story is the consequence of my knowing close to nothing about a character who was notorious for being a traitor and a renegade. Mostly, it had to do with ways of experiencing the world that were foundational: my father’s Masonic philosophy and its practice; my mother’s Catholic philosophy and its practice; living in a neighborhood where somehow everything worked like a microworld, where everyone had some familiar, historical connection, and where everything revolved around two or three very precise points — the whereabouts of Route 4, and certain businesses and schools. Mantilla is at the center of my life, because I was born in Mantilla, and my father, my grandfather, and my great-grandfather were all born in Mantilla. It is there, in that cradle that was and continues to be Mantilla, that I began to understand life and began to practice life in various ways. I know how chapter five will open, but I have no idea what’s going to happen after chapter five. Unfortunately, due mostly to rain and the intensely crowded thoroughfare of an outdoor market, I missed Padura’s talk, only to run into him minutes later as he made a quick getaway. What has Mario Conde lost? They have gone where they feel obliged to arrive, but not because they want to — and, certainly, not because that’s the best of all possible worlds.
In The Man Who Loved Dogs, a frustrated writer recalls an episode in his life that occurred three decades earlier. Every time I thought I’d reached the end, new information became available. Another one, called The Shield of The Republic, was authored by a Spanish historian who proposed an entirely different analysis of the origins and development of the Spanish Civil War. What does he need? The physical defense has to do with that house. Two years of only doing research, and three years of writing and researching. Self-censorship is a complicated mechanism, because it is always associated with political decisions. How does the fact that you may leave and enter the country at will impact your sense of belonging? Why Trotsky? Beginning is always a special process, in the sense that I don’t know how I’m going to write a story or how a story is going to develop, until I start writing it, developing it. “I’m not going to ask you why you stayed in Cuba,” I tell him. He has lost and needs almost everything that my generation has lost and needs. It sensors content that, according to the Ministry, is harmful to Cuba’s ethical and cultural values. Rumor has it that in the next two years you’ll be considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. I write every day, from 7:30 or 8:00 in the morning to 1:00 in the afternoon — until Lucía shouts, “Leonardo, lunch is ready!” and I go have lunch.
You enjoy the privilege of having a Cuban passport and a second citizenship. “My Father’s House,” a poem by Basque poet Gabriel Aresti (1933–1975), goes something like this:
They will leave me
And without breasts,
And with my soul I shall defend
The house of my father. Only once does he ask me to leave out a segment — I, of course, agree. And more than Mantillian, I am a writer from a house on the Calzada de Managua, Number 75, between Libertad and Magón. For this, he’s paid a price: bookstores on the island cannot meet Padura’s readers’ insatiable demand for his work, in particular when his work encompasses nearly every genre from social and cultural criticism to short stories and the novel, with a fiction list that ranges from characters such as Leon Trotsky and Ernest Hemingway to Rembrandt and José María Heredia, the romantic Cuban poet. Most of all, however, I played ball. More than a Cuban writer, I am a Habanero writer; and more than a Habanero writer, I am a Mantillian writer. More than anything, I want to join him, pry into his crystal ball, but I haven’t smoked in two years, so I stay put. The How? His vision of the world is not cynical, but ironic. What kind of research did you do for that book? I believe that Cuba belongs to Cubans, and everyone’s Cuban, despite differences in political creeds, or religious, gastronomic, and artistic preferences. All along, I was becoming me, taking over the city, but always with that feeling of going and coming back, going and coming back. As you might imagine, knowing a figure such as Trotsky, and being able to work with such a figure fictionally, was arduous work. Later, already a young man, I read more, but I was no longer a child. ¤
Translated from the Spanish by Susannah Rodríguez Drissi. Cuba is the nucleus, the Ithaca of my life. But, do you know what concerns me now? Trotsky’s murder marks the point at which the socialist utopia reaches an irreversible and dramatic end. So you don’t start writing with an end in mind, as many writers do? And, what does it mean to write in Cuba in the 21st century? Imagine, in Mexico, there were more than half a dozen Spanish communists prepared to kill Trotsky. I have lived there all my life, and to Mantilla I owe my first knowledge of the world, of reality, and of relationships between people. A house like mine, a very good house in Mantilla, is worth very little in economic terms. The sixth chapter of the novel I’m currently writing — that’s my real concern, not the Nobel Prize in Literature. ¤
Susannah Rodríguez Drissi is an award-winning Cuban poet, writer, playwright, translator, director, producer, and scholar. Trotsky is there, first and foremost, for pedestrian reasons. You can never know or entertain the idea; and if I ever dedicate a single neuron to thinking about the topic, I give Lucía permission to beat that neuron out of me with her bare fists. I met Padura for the first time in the town of Vincennes, in the eastern suburbs of Paris, on the occasion of the 2010 Festival América (September 24–26) where he had been invited to participate, along with other Cuban writers from on and off the island such as Wendy Guerra, Karla Suárez, Zoe Valdés, and Eduardo Manet. In the ’80s, it was important to separate literature from politics in a country where all else had been politicized; and, where the political response was not to talk about politics. I think it’s true. After all, this is not just one of Cuba’s best-known authors, but a compatriot, someone who, for me, represents the homeland. But, politically, I have gone as far as I wanted to go. But since it was possible for me to have great freedom — though, not total freedom — to travel and move, that has solidified my sense of belonging. His work has come to stand for a lost generation, or, more accurately put, for the losses of his own. And that investigation took about three years? At the end of our meeting, he takes out a box of cigarettes and goes outside to smoke, one of several cigarette breaks throughout the day, although both he and López Coll swear he’s cutting down. In recent years, I think I’ve traveled too much, so part of that great curiosity I once had to know places is waning. And where I store numberless memories, vocations, belongings. A writer has to write and take the risks that come with his particular line of work. A painter has to paint and a musician has to make his music. At once open and reserved, humble and famous, Padura seems animated with equal parts resignation and pride. Right now, I’m in the middle of a novel that goes up to chapter four, about 110 pages. There are historical figures, José Martí, for example, with whom I’d never dare work, because I think I’d never come to the kind of understanding that requires both a closing in on the individual character and a distancing. What is Trotsky’s relationship to Cuba? Marked by a past of obligatory self-censorship and possible ideological omissions to avoid retribution. I had already been in Paris for at least a month conducting archival research at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France on the links between the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962) when I was notified of the event. They’re right, it may be there; and, there’s even some manifestation of this macho lens that I’ve tried to control and I haven’t been able to. Whether they live here in the United States, or Haiti, or can see the lights of Maisí from one end of the island to the other, if they feel Cuban, Cuba belongs to them. Could you say something of this process? If some think so, well, thank you for thinking so. Do you keep to a strict schedule? A house may be many things — shelter, love, of course, a temple — a bad dream, even. When I wasn’t in school, and even when I should have been, I was playing. [Laughs.] The essay is a long reflection on the Why? Quite a few of them hold a cynical view of reality, but Conde’s not one of them. He looks taller, thinner, perhaps even a little tired. No, not at all. At some point, I read what you read when you’re a kid, Jules Verne or Emilio Salgari. During the last 50 years, the lack of individual will, which includes a Cuban’s inability to travel freely outside of the island, has defined the life of the average Cuban in Cuba. It’s always dangerous when specific concerns become general policy. For many years, as you well say, Cubans required an exit permit to leave the island. I greet them, and my voice is full of emotion. Writing in Cuba in the 21st century is an act of faith. Only now, in Cuba. Everyone always asks me that.” I ask my questions, one by one. Conde is nostalgic by nature, melancholy by essence, and ironic as a defense mechanism. Then, as a teenager, I read The Count of Monte Cristo, a novel that moved me greatly. But I am most productive and advance the most when I’m home. (My Father’s House, 1963)
In what way could we talk about your decision to live and write in Cuba as a way to defend your father’s house?
There’s both a physical defense and a spiritual defense that take place. What shaped your work and contributed to your development as a writer? It’s possible that the information lies in an archive, somewhere, but it’s unlikely; Stalin burned what information there was surrounding the planning of Trotsky’s murder. People write books, write novels that are published in Cuban publishing houses that circulate little and badly. How do you begin new work? That’s what they say. that is the purpose of the novel. If that same house were in Vedado or Miramar, it would cost 10 times more, but nobody wants to live in Matilla, except for me. The whole thing is complex, because there’s a combination of stench and fecal matter that informs it all. It solidifies or increases that sense of belonging. I don’t believe I have the right to offend while exercising what I defend. Ramón Mercader is a ghost, a man we know about only because he killed Trotsky. And, if I ever have to leave Cuba, if I’m ever forced to leave Cuba, I will lose that spiritual, cultural, but also visceral connection with the Cuban way of life. Lucía López Coll, his wife, accompanies him. To whom does the island belong? ¤
SUSANNAH RODRÍGUEZ DRISSI: Would you like to talk about your childhood? I belong to a macho culture, and I have a philosophical formation that goes beyond what one consciously wants to reveal. The town exists, of course, in the sentimental space, in the intellectual space I inhabit as a person, then in a social, geographical, and “cultural” space — very much in quotation marks, because there is not much culture in Mantilla; so, I’m referring to culture in the broadest sense, and that includes relationships between people. LEONARDO PADURA: My childhood was so ordinary, and so wrapped up into what it meant to be from my small town of Mantilla, that I don’t see anywhere an indication that this childhood had something to do with a possible writing vocation. There were three or four books published during the final two years of writing the novel; one, for example, was called Spain Betrayed. It is a place where I’ve put down roots, a place I have defended as property, and that I take care of as one of my most important possessions, and not for its possible material worth. Physical distance has been a constant trope in Cuba’s national literature. Do you feel at home both in Spain and in Cuba? I read very little. Maybe its origin has to do with certain public musical manifestations, or with attempts to politicize specific cultural activities, as happened with the Havana Biennial. In Mantilla, even today, when someone goes to the neighborhood of Vedado, or to Central Havana, they say, “I’m going to Havana,” and that “going to Havana,” for me, was one way of expanding my knowledge of the city about which I write. As far as Ramón Mercader, he could have been a certain Jacques Mornard, who was in Mexico at the time; or one Sylvia Ageloff, who was close to Trotsky’s family. I believe that the great challenge is to identify which of those elements in a historical figure’s life — a Russian revolutionary who’s been the protagonist of historical events, and now part of universal history — will lead to the kind of closeness necessary for the novel to exist and for him to exist in the novel. He’s no stranger to interviews, so his responses are thoughtful, but always measured, carefully modulated. This time, we meet in Los Angeles, during his visit to UCLA. In person, the 63-year-old Padura is somewhat different from the man I remember meeting in Paris eight years earlier. If I’d been forced to live in Cuba without other possibilities, maybe my writing would have followed a different path. Of these, we know only that one of them used a pseudonym, Felipe, but no one knows who Felipe was. In a country where intellectuals continue to toe the line, despite the purported relaxation of censorship in the last decade, Padura has managed to both capture the harsh realities of life on the island and survive the censors unscathed. No one person owns the nation — we all own the nation. That is truly a difficult question because Conde wants so many things, has lost so many things, and needs so many things — my answer would be endless. You don’t need an absolutely exhaustive and documented knowledge of the period and the character himself, but you must master the context and the character’s perspective of his or her reality; it’s this very thing, this knowledge, that is going to lead to a novel and that the novelist will handle, from the vantage point of fictional codes. I have continued to write and, as I said earlier, I have gone as far as I’ve wanted to go and said as much as I’ve needed to say. On a Cuban beach, he meets an enigmatic man accompanied by two Russian greyhounds.