The Girl in the File: Margarete Schaffer under Nazi Psychiatry

The denial of a job placement for me would have already hit the employment office. Misses nothing, watches the nurse’s mouth to catch every word. He calls Margarete “cheeky,” or frech, suggesting that she violated feminine ideals of deference. Already on XI/16/1942 at 1/2 past 9 in the evening she was apprehended near the Ostbahnhof station, where she was hanging about with a soldier. Maran, Vienna 7, Ziegler Lane) 30 RM [Reichsmarks] of flowers from a flower shop, and wares worth of 70 RM from a paper shop. This rapid change of her affect, her mood, does not signify morbid moods in the sense of mainic-depressive [sic.] psychoses, but is explained by the primitive reaction of her undifferentiated personality. Margarete’s diagnoses run the gamut: from schizophrenia to menstrual issues to nothing at all. Her overall mood appears equable. Especially now in the war. The letter states she was brought to Otto Pötzl’s famed neuropsychiatric clinic for evaluation, and that it pronounced “moral endangerment” rather than a mental illness. I will therefore do what is required of me. was employed as a laborer by Ketzer, XXI, Schenkendorf Lane 17/19 from XI/13/1942 to XII.15.1942. is especially cheeky with the ch.m. B.H.2-B.J.A.2/L. On the whole still quite infantile. The previously issud [sic.] issued diagnosis of schizophrenia can by no means be confirmed by the present clinical observation. Sch. The reports do not add up to a flesh-and-blood child. She also had various male acquaintances. Sits at work as diligently as ever, but is still/otherwise[?] very talkative.  
Schaffer Margarete, geb. […]
The District Commissioner:
On behalf of:Stichl[?]
document 2
Two days after the district commissioner’s referral, Asperger and his colleague, Dr. The nurse’s handwritten account suggests Margarete was desirous to talk  — sharing the hardships she had endured at Vienna’s children’s institutions and her fears for her future. The archives, however, expose a very different story. Sometimes acts like the inmate of a workhouse. Helene J o c k l                               Dr. Officials designate Margarete for Spiegelgrund Pavilion 17 under second Spiegelgrund director Ernst Illing, the observation pavilion where children were evaluated for potential killing.  IX Lazarett Lane 14. was released back home again on 10/7/1942. Polite tone to the nurse, urges the children to be, she knows first [?] when they commit improprieties. The teenager had been acting frechor “cheeky,” and her mother no longer knew what to do with her. The solitary person in the home appears far less cheerful, however. The ch.m. She has a lot of success with the children with this. Vienna, 9/24/1941. There are notations. Despite agreement on her offenses, each expert reaches a different conclusion. ¤
document 3
A month after Asperger’s harsh evaluation of Margarete, the district commissioner informs Vienna’s Child Intake Office, which was responsible for welfare services, that she has been sent to Spiegelgrund. at all. Speaks a lot, makes jokes, does theater all the time, imitating one nurse or another, or an aspect of life at the institution in which the adults play somewhat of a laughable role. Sits demurely in a corner, writes/knits[?] a lot, sings or narrates as she does so. The mn. Margarete. Presumably, Steinhof doctors did not believe she had a mental illness. [child’s mother] talks to the mn. Margarete soon found herself in trouble again. For context, I included notes in italics before each document. S c h a f f e r Margarete. Therefore her transfer to the Wagner von Jauregg sanatorium and care facility “Am Steinhof” is requested. ¤
document 13
This final assessment from Asperger’s clinic concludes that Margarete did not have a psychosis, but was “operating at a low mental level with individual psychopathic features.” It calls her “primitive” twice. These records, then, slotted citizens for treatment, sterilization, internment, or extermination. has presented childrearing difficulties for about 3-4 years. 10/13/1927. H ü b s c h
                                                            Institute Senior Physician
document 5
Margarete stayed at Steinhof from May 4, 1942, until October 7, 1942, when she was discharged home.  
document 9
These handwritten notes, only partially legible, were taken over time at Asperger’s clinic. The word frech— alternately translated as bold, brazen, sassy, and impudent — reappears numerous times in Margarete’s file. What follows is one girl’s case history; some sense of a child’s story. ¤
document 4
Margarete spends nine months at Spiegelgrund. Perhaps she does not do it consciously; because that kind of narration presumes a certain kind of personality. Margarete’s file also reveals the lethal stakes of Reich social values. ¤
document 12
These are scraps from Margarete’s testing at Asperger’s clinic — word associations and dictation. The commissioner also suggests that a single working mother might be unable to care for Margarete. 
B.H.2-B.J.A. She was then returned to the ch.m. Children’s Hospital in Vienna                              Vienna, 8/23/1941
9, Lazarett Lane 14                                                       n. 9/7
To the Child Intake Office                                                                                                                                                      Vienna 9.,  Lustkandl Ln. She craves validtion [sic.], always wants to be at the center of attention and, due to her aptitude for imagination, has a tendency to boastful, fantastically embellished lies. Has only superficial interest, dismisses everything offhand. At home she was cheeky with the ch.m. This translation cannot convey the jumble of flimsy papers, the inky smell, the illegible handwriting, and the harshness of Nazi-era German bureaucratese. R. It is also impossible to know what officials and clinicians were really thinking. This letter was apparently unsent. Acting Director
Dr. Her good, civilized behavior is determined in a primitive manner by expediency, not greater insight or ethical motives. I imagine my future back home again with you. Sterilization appears to be advisable. She was imprisoned and she does not like to remember the time in the cell. The file exposes the process of Nazi extermination: perfunctory evaluations efface the child’s individuality, a psychiatric dehumanization that paves the way toward death. From her spirited letters and drawing, as well as consistent reports of talking and joking, Margarete comes across as full of life, full of activity. justified her absence from work because she did not like it there, she gets home late and has no time to eat. was evaluated at the University Children’s Hospital on 8/23/1941. The mn. In September 1941, she was “introduced” to Spiegelgrund director Erwin Jekelius and transferred to Spiegelgrund the same day; in January 1943, she was designated for Spiegelgrund’s Pavilion 17, where children were placed under observation for death. Wüster hon.” […]
Frch. In this document, he invokes numerous gender stereotypes of the time and surmises that menstrual cycles might play a role in Margarete’s misbehavior (never mind that she had not yet begun menstruating). 43)
Pride went for a walk one day. […]
Administrative: since the girl is very useful and capable, another attempt to arrange employment seems appropriate to us. Very impulsive. Child Intake Office/Youth Department
Schaffer Margarete, 10/13/1927
D u p l i c a t e   of the summary assessment of Margarete Schaffer from the Spiegelgrund institution 14, Baumgarnerhöhe 1 from 5/4/1942. He wore a crown of soap bubbles on his head that shimmered brightly and splendidly in the sunshine. The appearance of the yth. And yet, you can still feel the harshness of the reports, the arbitrariness of the judgments, and sense the absolute power of the professionals who sent Margarete ricocheting around Vienna’s ghastly children’s institutions. Feldmann. Schaffer Margarete,


To the
Child Intake Office
Danger of waywardness (deceitfulness, pathological dishonesty, staying out for hours)
The mn. Duplicate. My ambition is only one thing. The mn. Notice how there is little sense of Margarete herself in the pronouncements. Vienna, 12/22/42
B.H.2-B.J.A.2/L.                                             Mn. […]
As soon as she feels any kind of attention, at center stage, she becomes very talkative, makes jokes, and makes much of herself. Dear nurse Neuenteufel! Return to the parents is therefore recommended on a trial basis. no longer tries to get to the facts. Schaffer Margarete, 10/13/1927
                                                                                                2., Schönerer St. Mn. She was ultimately moved from one psychiatric institution to another, diagnosed, prodded, and assessed by the various doctors, nurses, and officials. She includes cheerful details: a bowl of fruit, a side table with flowers, a polka-dotted wall, a rocking horse, a patterned rug, and a framed mountain landscape. The mn. S c h a f f e r Margarete, b. The nurse seeks to correct, in words: “Please go, stop it, don’t be so cheeky.” Then her eyes light up triumphantly, when one e.g., shakes a finger. Well no offense
and head high. House ————— Sand, box[?], chair, bed, bench, table, blackboard, doctor[?], church, tower[?], spire[?], snow[?], stockings, warmth[?], dresses, limbs, bones, head, neck, hand, sister, brother, service, work, female worker, window, door, tool, suitcase, broom. 17 (Dr. When we report to each other about the children in the morning, she is always hanging around near us. worked with the master tailor for only one day, and ordered on that one day at the expense of the employer (Mrs. He had put his flat feet in shoes with heels, and walked like a king. The Third Reich can be seen as a diagnosis regime, obsessed with sorting the population into categories, the godlike power of assessment and the dangers of the file. Grete Schaffe
document 11
In this letter to her father, Margarete writes that she would like to live with him after her institutionalization and vows to “work diligently,” idealizing the future. During this time she repeatedly stayed away from work for no reason and hung about in the streets until late at night. Intellectually about average. Since the girl is particularly endangered due to her nature, we recommend housing her in a welfare education center under the jurisdiction of Welfare Education. was already committed once on 9/19/1941 due to her impossible behavior at home. Mn. Luckesi hon. Reading the cold paper trail, you would never recognize the kid who loves puns and hugs me hard. She is too “cheeky,” too “talkative,” and associates with too many boys too late at night. Dr. This letter is striking, as all official reports focus exclusively on Margarete’s relationship with her mother and present her as the girl’s only residential option. Vienna, May 4, 1942                                        For the director:
Department Physician
Dr. A few months later, on December 22, 1942, a report from Child Intake Office complains that she has demonstrated “impossible behavior.” The biggest concerns are Margarete’s violations feminine propriety — disobedience with her mother and, most egregiously, hanging out with “various male acquaintances” on the streets at night. Was embarrassed, sensitive, often cheeky. […]
According to the ch.m., the childrearing difficulties with the mn. She is extremely active, talkative, and very easily distracted. For readability, I cut the file in half and arranged it in chronological order. Hübsch and Jockl were themselves tried after the war for killing children in this way. Dr. He had put his flat feet in shoes with enormous heels and walked on them as majestically as a king. Neudorf), but must also necessarily provide for sufficient employment. To the adults she seems neither humorous nor intelligent, just unpleasant. But job performance is actually good. She was also in danger of being killed. and did not obey at all. For years after my son’s diagnosis, I treated him more as a therapist than a parent. On XII/10/1942 this yr. At 16-17 years old a person has a lot of stupid things in mind. Dear father! Mn. Her desire is to become a nanny, but she doubts whether she can become one after all this. 20  Childhood
To receive the LARB Quarterly Journal, become a member  or purchase a copy at your local bookstore. occur periodically. The mother, who also has three smaller children, despite her best intentions cannot supervise the girl adequately, because she always knows how to escape and get up to all sorts of mischief. (Mr. I don’t offer much even to people stupider than I am. And within the confusion, every expert appears omnipotent, writing reports that send Margarete in and out of Vienna’s lethal institutions in a flash. did not return to the store at all. The mn. The main issue is her impulsivity. Please forgive my nuisanse [sic]. […]
5/10. Volatile and erratic. Mn. My son was diagnosed with autism when he was 17 months old. 4888
B.H.2-B.J.A.2/L. The report cites Margarete’s overly good behavior as problematic, as aimed to make “a good impression” rather stemming from “greater insight or ethical motives.” It also faults Margarete for being too “talkative” and calling attention to herself. Dr. The mn,. is hereditarily tainted (father a drinker, convicted of fraud and theft, father’s brother drinker). Her prescriptions run the gamut, too: from release home to sterilization to observation for killing. She left fourth grade secondary school this year (July) and was placed in a tailor’s apprenticeship on July 28. What happens when you write a narrative out of fragmentary files?             Stichl [?]                                               Vod[?] i.V. Margarete’s file is comparatively robust, but it is also bitter, and vexing. Jekelius was notorious for scouting Vienna’s institutions for children. She was very surprised when she heard that she had to take a bath and said if she had known that she would have already bathed at the institution. Marg. This behavior is certainly not due to a disturbance of the contact ability, but arises from her efforts to make good impression. This, along with the documented abnormalities […] — staring impassively before her, her lack of contact, hallucinations of a predominantly optical nature, as well as vague delusions of persecution, (the whole neighborhood mocked her and her family called her out), delusions of poisoning, together with the incoherence of thought, the flight of ideas that appears in her essays, the neologisms, the manner of expressing herself, and the type of drawings, leads to the diagnosis:
Schizophrenia with manic-depressive phases. Narration can bring the past to life, but you lose the rawness of the documents. As of November 1940 he served a 2-year jail sentence from the district court for theft. Here is the horror of the medical file. […]
The mn. These appearances occur at intervals of 14 days to 3 weeks, then mn. Margarete’s shifting placements hinged upon shifting labels. does well again for a time. The writer seems skeptical about Margarete’s good behavior and uninterested in either her stories or her jokes. Tiny and isolated in the lower left corner, the figure sits in a large bathtub under a heavy jet of water, the head barely visible — as Margarete had perhaps felt in her bath the day before. 10/13/1927, resident in Vienna 2, Schönerer Street 4/7, has presented childrearing difficulties for about 3-4 years. She is extremely independent, will not be influenced from any side, such that she is often outrageously cheeky to caregivers. Luckesi, issue a more damning judgment of Margarete. “Deceitfulness, pathological dishonesty” is written at the top of the page, by hand, scribbled after the report was typed. After her sentence she was in an institution where she had to work hard, among other things washing clothes. about this, she just jumps out the window (apartment is at ground level) and runs away. stated that the mn. Schaffer Margarete
To the
University Children’s Hospital
(Curative Education Department)     Vienna 9,
                                                                   Lazarett Lane 14. The mn. There may be a connection with the seemingly periodic disturbances of the mn. They also advocate sterilization. note on the following documents
While I want to portray the roughness of the file, this reproduction shows the historian’s hand. Yet here Illing chides his fellow Spiegelgrund doctors Hübsch and Jockl for being too critical of Margarete, writing that “the medical history entries from then did not prove schizophrenia.” Instead, he faults Margarete for lack of feminine docility, being too “active,” “independent,” and, of course, “cheeky.” He releases her home again as “educable on a trial basis.”
Child Intake Office/Youth Department
Schaffer Margarete, 10/13/1927
D u p l i c a t e   of the summary assessment of the Vienna Children’s Municipal Mental Hospital 14 Baumgarnerhöhe 1 from 3/9/1943
Expert opinion on Margarete S c h a f f e r,  b. Deleted text is indicated by ellipses, grammatical errors with sic, and illegible words with dashes and question marks. Menses have not yet begun for the mn., who is already turning 14. She degrades herself, depicts herself as small and isolated, and is reported to crouch and fear poisoning (this was not sheer paranoia — patients were in fact poisoned in that clinic). Illing, with the investigation of whether the mn. She tests average intelligence. F 2-Scha-5/44. Asperger hon. The notes also suggest that Margarete was worried about her standing with the clinic staff, anxious to hear what they were saying about her and even cowering before them. Teachers, administrators, and doctors determine what our children learn, what medications they take or don’t take, and what doors are open to them. The body was not very dirty, only it showed a lot of pimples. Vienna’s Child Guidance Center was apparently not sure what to do with the girl and an official requested that Asperger’s Curative Education Clinic conduct a conclusive evaluation.Margarete was admitted to Asperger’s Curative Education clinic on April 18, 1944, and taken to bathe. Should domestic circumstances make release to the family impossible, then that only leaves accommodation in an institution (Vie. In the end, Margarete was sent to the children’s home at Luisenheim, her mother was apparently reluctant to take her daughter back home. 
Univ. By 1942, Reich Health Leader Leonardo Conti estimated that 12 percent of the population had been indexed, 10 million people. […] The ch.m. It is impossible to know what Margarete was really like — how she looked, the sound of her voice, what she said exactly. […]
As a result of her mental irregularities, M. The report is enclosed. 10/13/1927
Due to knowledge of the files, as well as examinations and observations conducted here since 1/13/1943, concerns an endomorphic adolescent born in wedlock and in unfortunate household conditions, intellectually capable for her age. She stole the smoking ration card from her in order to give cigarettes to a lad she knew. Her mood has changed since this exam. Experts are essential of course; but there is always danger in deference, in fixed labels, and in pathologizing behavior. I like children, but I know that now in the war you cannot choose your work. Later, she spent several months at the adult euthanasia center Steinhof. Therefore, despite apparent improvement she remains completely unreliable. They claim that she has a psychiatric condition — a neuropathy — rather than mere menstrual issues or misbehavior. He deemed the youths irremediable, a drain on the Reich. [Margarete’s handwriting]
Pride went for a walk one day. Vienna 2, Schönerer St.9. Vienna District Youth Office,
Dept. One is happy when she is finished a. Her file suggests the extensive psychic trauma Nazi psychiatry inflicted on its child victims. Soukoup, the master glazier, also made this observation). Ernst I l l i n g,
Senior Medical Officer
document 7
 Eleven months after Margarete was released home from Spiegelgrund, on February 12, 1944, she ran away. Schaffer 6/17/1905, is a janitor, runs the household, and cares for 3 children. The medical case records from the time do not establish schizophrenia, but can moreover be interpreted as abnormal reactions of a characterologically deviant personality. Sch. is at all capable of work deployment. Margarete managed to survive Asperger’s clinic, though she was not home for long. Asperger’s clinic was only one of the many institutions that fed into the Nazi “euthanasia” program, which murdered over 5,000 young people and children who were considered to have physical, mental, or behavioral defects. Periodic mood changes, together with other signs of manic disturbance present in the assessment (inclination to rhyming, stringing together words of similar meaning and volume, elevated self-esteem, and similar) would suggest a diagnosis of manic-depressive insanity. JANUARY 1, 2019

This piece appears in the latest issue of the LARB Print Quarterly Journal: No. 4/18/1944
Immediately upon entering the bathroom she was very talkative. In this letter to nurse Neuenteufel, Margarete apologizes for an apparent transgression, abases herself, and pledges to improve her behavior. Completely reckless, uncritical, and unreliable. Her ability to work can at this time be affirmed. They recommend that Margarete be removed from her home and become a ward of the government, placed in a “welfare education center.” In Vienna, the best-known welfare education center was the Municipal Youth Welfare Institution at Spiegelgrund — where at least 789 children were killed during the war.          Dr. has to lock up everything from her, otherwise the mn. borrowed money from people in order to claim items she wanted at a shop. [minor] Schaffer Margarete, b. Diction
(from Hans Asperger’s Heilpädagogik, p. 2/L.                                                                      Vienna, 8/21/1941
Subject: mn. We only have their stilted pronouncements, without knowledge of their private conversations, pressures, and motivations. On his purple robe hung numerous gilded glass balls. He also wore a soap bubble on his head, which shimmered brightly and splendidly in the sunshine. 13.10.1927
Concerns a character that is very little differentiated, a personality operating a low mental level with individual psychopathic features, but not a psychosis. is very unmaidenly: she already has pronounced full feminine body forms, lacks youthful tone and turgor, her movements are rather cumbersome, without any grace, her speech is precocious, too wise; she uses stilted idioms, hackneyed phrases. After stays at the killing centers of Spiegelgrund and Steinhof, she seems more anxious and eager to please. Furthermore, ch.m. It puts the listener’s patience to the test. Ironically, the second director of Spiegelgrund, Ernst Illing, decided Margarete was fine and returned her home. The mn. Concerns a neuropathic girl, very unsettled and distracted. Despite these character failings, the report concludes that Margarete was “very useful and capable” and should be deployed for work, either at home or in an institution. stole a bottle of perfume worth 25 Pf in the department store “Falnbigl”. Currently she does not necessarily require further stay at an insttution [sic.]. Schaffer Margarete, b: 10/13/1927          Admit. […]
document 10
This is one of two scraps of Margarete’s personal writing in her file. On his Purple colored [sic.] robe hung numerous gilded glass balls. The document does not, however, issue a medical diagnosis, but a moral failing. is  e d u c a b l e   o n  a   t r i a l   b a s i s. Without internal stability. She was apparently “introduced” to Spiegelgrund head doctor Erwin Jekelius on September 19, 1941, and transferred the same day. [child’s father] Schaffer Franz, b. I am still young and stupid. If the ch.m. Within three years, Margarete’s diagnoses ranged from “waywardness” to menstrual problems to “manic depressive insanity” to schizophrenia. It cannot convey the sense of holding horror in your hands. ¤
Edith Sheffer is a Senior Fellow at the Institute of European Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Readers may be struck by how fragmentary it feels. This may feel like a different world from the one we live in today, but it is in fact, eerily similar. From where I want to work diligently again. Jekelius. In the eyes of officials and clinicians, these gender transgressions warrant institutionalization at Vienna’s killing centers. she was brought to the Child Guidance Center: The assessment reads:
“Considering the clinical report (Pötzl’s clinic), extensive domestic difficulties, the ch.m., who is failing at child rearing and unable to cope with the child, and serious moral endangerment and workplace difficulties, the soonest transfer is requested to Vienna Municipal Mental Hospital [Spiegelgrund] Pav. The mn. During that time, doctors Margarethe Hübsch and Helene Jockl diagnose her with “schizophrenia with manic-depressive phases.” They see evidence of mental illness in virtually all aspects of Margarete’s behavior and order institutionalization in neighboring sanatorium Steinhof, which was a center of adult euthanasia. Has fluent speech with hackneyed expressions. He had a reputation for rescuing children from the killing program, and some even believed that he emphasized the special abilities of children in order to protect them, developing the autism diagnosis as a psychiatric Schindler’s list. 50
Child rearing difficulties, moral endangerment. The kitchen and dinner tables are set with colorful tablecloths. One’s label determined one’s fate. Outside of her color drawing and two short letters, Margarete is defined by the words of others. They note that Margarete had “delusions of poisoning.” Children at Spiegelgrund were, in fact, poisoned: staff issued overdoses of barbiturates until they grew ill and died, usually of pneumonia. She faces death for violating feminine norms of docility and propriety. She does not participate at all in the community of children, also not with the other older girls, but constantly sits in unflagging unnatural-looking diligence, an exaggerated zeal at work. The 16-year-old was apprehended four days later in Znaim and institutionalized at the Children’s Home Luisenheim. She makes a nice impression, cares for the children well, is however at present not up to the childrearing difficulties of the mn. The true reason however appears to be aversion to work.[…]
The mother no longer knows what to do with the child. Children’s Hospital in Vienna,                             6/13/44. Margarete’s first stop was the clinic of Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician and a pioneer of autism research. Although the commissioner had reported the previous month that Margarete’s mother “made a nice impression,” he now describes the mother as “moronic” and incapable of caring for Margarete, thereby justifying the girl’s institutionalization. Lately childrearing difficulties have become more frequent. This inevitably affected our relationship. often disappears in a flash and simply stays out for half a day. [?] Krummer[?]    Penkler    [Illegible]       
document 6
Margarete spent two months at Spiegelgrund, from January 13 until March 9, 1943. […]

There is currently no evidence of mental illness (schizophrenia, manic-depressive illness, etc [sic.]). I imagine how nice it would be if we were all together again. After her stint in Asperger’s clinic, she was sent to Spiegelgrund, the child killing facility. is mentally ill and requires permanent stay in a psychiatric institution. will sell or tradethings < or collects them for others. Officials cataloged individuals by race, politics, religion, behavior, and biology, compiling massive “hereditary inventories” of the population. […]  The 2nd day the mn. At the time, Asperger ran the Curative Education Clinic at the University of Vienna Children’s Hospital. Concerns a mental illness of the mn. Overall, the writer is displeased with how “talkative” she is. On 9/19/1941 she was introduced to Chief Physician Dr. And I will try to rise up, alone and slowly. They show, instead, that Asperger was complicit in the Reich’s racial hygiene policies, and that he approved the transfer of dozens of children to Spiegelgrund, Vienna’s killing center — many of whom died. ¤
In the three-year period between 1941 and 1944, 13-year-old Margarete Schaffer was taken from her home in Vienna and institutionalized three times. […]
In the present manic phase, the facial expression is remarkably empty, even in seemingly lively conversation, the line of thought appears to be hindered, leading often to unmotivated laughter, to light grimacing, the gail [sic.] is stiff and mannered. is very cheeky with her at home, incites the siblings against her, and is very reluctant to help in the household. Never again to falter in life. [sic.] cheerful, butwill [sic.] often be displaced by irritable short-term (reactive?) ill humor. ¤
document 8
On her second day at Asperger’s clinic, Margarete drew a picture of an idyllic home with bright, cozy rooms. During the bath, Schaffer told me some things about her life. The trace is slim, but it is enough to put together some semblance of a story.  

The File of Margarete Schaffer

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document 1
The commissioner of Vienna’s 22nd district referred Margarete on August 21, 1941, for psychiatric evaluation at Asperger’s Curative Education Clinic at the Universityof Vienna Children’s Hospital, charging her with delinquency, theft, and unruliness at home. Univ. (crouches, because expects[?] better from it.)
Examined by Dr. It’s jerky and confusing; it raises more questions than it answers. When asked about her offenses, she evades by reporting a lot of trivialities in detail, and never gets to the essentials. Ever since then, his personality has been plotted in detail, with ever-advancing goals and treatments. Tone talking to the nurse can be opposite, either hypocritical politeness or flat and indifferent[?]. School attendance was favorable at the time, the matter remained at a strict warning. 6/6/1906, an unskilled laborer by occupation, has been convicted several times for theft. There, director Illing assesses her rather positively, declaring “there is no evidence of a mental illness.” This is striking since Illing was a notorious killer, finding reasons to put hundreds of children to death. This was the deadly arbitrariness of Nazi child psychiatry. She is the prize-winning author Asperger’s Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna.  Asperger has long been considered a source of mercy in the midst of this systematic tragedy. The ch.f. was taken on the same day to the welfare institution “Am Spiegelgrund.”
Application: Transfer to municipal care. […] The ch.m., who is moronic, is no longer up to the rearing the mn.