Maybe it was better not to know. I was amazed by how strange, cynical, and darkly humorous some of these posters were — such as, the one where children are thanking Stalin for their childhood during the war. These posters were expressing the cruelty of the period in positive terms. ¤
Shane Anderson is an author and translator living in Berlin. Originally, I wanted to write about a Georgian family and focus on the 1990s. They experienced a lot of cruelty too. The reader is aware of this from the dedication:
For my grandmother,
who gifted me 1,000 stories and a poem. JULY 2, 2020
IN HER ACCLAIMED 2014 NOVEL The Eighth Life (for Brilka), Nino Haratischvili interweaves a saga about a Georgian family with the fate of their country during the “Red Century.” Totaling over 900 pages (in the competent translation by Charlotte Collins and Ruth Martin, published in April by Scribe US), the novel chronicles the Jashi family over six generations, from their beginnings as chocolatiers before the Russian Revolution, through their various experiences of war and exile, to the attempts by the narrator to record the messy family history in order to transcend it. I grew up during this time, and the post-Soviet reality was very challenging. These two Georgian men had such a terrible and enormous impact on the whole century and on every character in the book. How long did it take to write? But the most existential problems kept repeating. And for my mother,
who told me where to seek the answers. Yes, but most of the poets you quote — Akhmatova and Mandelstam, for instance — were censored and/or persecuted. More work can be found here: http://shane-anderson.info/. For my father,
who left me with a bag full of questions. I wanted to set the scene of some of my chapters with these images, but I thought that if I did, it might create the wrong atmosphere. So, you’re an optimist? NINO HARATISCHVILI: Four years. In any case, maybe it was good to work like this. I’m curious about part of this dedication — about your grandmother and the poem. In The Eighth Life, Haratischvili investigates the relationship between personal trauma and the pains of a nation. If I had known that I was going to work on the novel for four years and sacrifice my life to it for the last two years entirely, maybe I wouldn’t have dared to do it. Stalin is named at the end of the book, as is Lavrenti Beria [the chief of security under Stalin, who is called the “Little Big Man” in the rest of the story]. Georgian history is like a circle. I realized that I had to go back in time. It is hopeful, and I needed this hope for myself too. While that might sound weighty, thus justifying the claims that the novel is the Georgian War and Peace, the narrative is easily digestible — like one of the Jashi family’s confections, The Eighth Life is a cup of hot chocolate: intoxicating, addictive, and highly pleasurable (in small doses). I’m more of a realist but I’m trying. Is this why Stalin is only ever called the Generalissimus in the novel? A lot of the characters are not able to break through, just like people weren’t able to do under the Soviet regime. This had always been my goal. I had a lot of questions, and the more research I did, the more I realized how one thing had led to another. It was also very violent. There was never an Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit — a reckoning with the past — like the Germans had after the war, so it makes sense that things kept repeating in Georgia. This felt natural to me. As I started doing research, I realized it would be impossible to understand the 1990s on their own. In fact, the same violent and awful things happen to different members of the family in different periods. This element came quite late, actually. [Laughs.]
You said you had numerous questions going into the writing that required a lot of research. Violence and the interconnectedness/repetition of events are two important themes in the book. Poetry seems to be as important as politics in the novel, in that every chapter has an epigraph that’s either taken from a (Russian) poem or from political slogans or thinkers. That is, you never name Stalin because you do not admire him? It’s a little like in fairy tales, where you can’t pronounce the name of the evil characters because it’s a curse. That’s how I ended up at the October Revolution — but even that wasn’t far back enough. While researching the book, I went to an exhibition about Soviet posters at the Sakharov Center, one of the few political and cultural centers in Russia that is critical of the Soviet past, if not the only one. It would mean that nothing beautiful happened in these 70 years, that there was no poetry. You cannot compare 1937 with 1989. This period was an ending. I sat down with Haratischvili to discuss some of the inner workings of her novel. Of course, every era is different. But I didn’t plan to write a saga spanning 100 years. There were civil wars and economic crises. But I knew I would reveal their names at the end of the book where I retold a Soviet joke from the 1930s. When you laugh about something, it loses its power. If everything is stuck on repeat in The Eighth Life, then the last page of the book, which is blank, could be seen as a way out, a moment of hope.
You’re never done with history, but Niza is telling Brilka all the stories in the book so that she can leave it all behind and so that Brilka can write her own history. This is true, but I wanted to also show things that I admired. ¤
SHANE ANDERSON: The Eighth Life is a massive book that spans a century.